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Hexavalent Chromium

Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is one of the valence states (+6) of the element chromium. It is usually produced by an industrial process. Cr(VI) is known to cause cancer. In addition, it targets the respiratory system, kidneys, liver, skin and eyes. OSHA requires employers to determine Cr(VI) exposures to employees. Options for exposure determinations include initial and periodic exposure monitoring.

Chromium metal is added to alloy steel to increase hardenability and corrosion resistance. A major source of worker exposure to Cr(VI) occurs during “hot work” such as welding on stainless steel and other alloy steels containing chromium metal. Cr(VI) compounds may be used as pigments in dyes, paints, inks, and plastics. It also may be used as an anticorrosive agent added to paints, primers, and other surface coatings. The Cr(VI) compound chromic acid is used to electroplate chromium onto metal parts to provide a decorative or protective coating. It is estimated that 558,000 workers are potentially exposed to Cr(VI) in the United States. Workers in a variety of occupations are potentially exposed to Cr(VI). Workplace exposures occur mainly in the following areas:

  • Welding/cutting stainless steel and other metals that contain chromium
  • Use of pigments, spray paints and coatings
  • Operating chrome plating baths
OSHA ID-215 / NIOSH 7605

These methods involve collecting an air sample onto a 5.0-µm polyvinyl chloride (PVC) membrane mounted in a 37-mm or 25-mm polystyrene cassette holder. The recommended flow rate is 2.0 liters per minute for 480 minutes (i.e., 960 liters). NIOSH Analytical Method 7605 is comparable to OSHA Method ID-215. Analysis is performed by ion chromatography with post column derivatization and UV detection. Hexavalent Chromium samples collected on PVC from welding operations do not require field stabilization as with Hexavalent Chromium samples collected from other operations (such as samples collected during chromium plating operations). Hexavalent Chromium samples collected from welding operations must be analyzed within eight days of sampling in accordance with OSHA ID-215 to minimize the effects caused by the interaction of Fe(II) and Hexavalent Chromium to form Cr(III). Storage stability tests showed that these samples were not stable for longer periods of time.

Significant amounts of Hexavalent Chromium are often deposited on the interior walls of the sampling cassettes. Tests showed that Hexavalent Chromium equivalent to 0 to 123% of the amounts found on the PVC filter were present on the interior walls of cassettes. Therefore, it is now routine analytical procedure for the lab analyst to the wipe interior walls of sampling cassettes for all metal samples.

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Coming from an academic background, we appreciate that the J3 philosophy includes a commitment to provide excellent laboratory support, as well as an interest in conducting research and understanding the interdisciplinary issues associated with our projects. That philosophy is typified by their participation in industry meetings and government conferences, by their published research in peer reviewed biomedical journals, and in invitations to present at prestigious academic conferences including the Harvard School of Public Health’s annual “Current Concepts and Controversies in Asbestos-Related Diseases” and at the Collegium Ramazzini Conference in Italy for specialists in occupational medicine.

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President
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It is such an honor to use your excellent and highly professional services from the front desk and their friendly and always helpful service to the highly talented professionals in the back. I never drop off samples but that someone stops by to shake my hand and visit if even for just a moment. At the end of a long day it’s so nice to stop by and finish it off at J3.

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Brick by Brick Consulting

J3 Resources has provided Texas Tech University with excellent laboratory analytical services for nearly 15 years. Lee and Cathy Poye have gathered a great team of professionals. It is a pleasure communicating and working with the staff at J3. Thank you for your services!

Michael Toombs, B.S.

Unit Manager for Asbestos Compliance
Asbestos Individual Consultant
Texas Tech University

I’ve been sending samples to J3 since its inception. I’ve had many great experiences over the years, but this is one I thought you should know about. I know this is the standard operating procedure for J3, but they really helped me out with a mistake I made on a survey. I had to go back to the project site to take some additional samples late in the afternoon. It was extremely important that our client received results and report that day. I wasn’t able to get to the lab until 4:05 and by 4:20 I had the results and the report, which made it possible for me to get the report out before 5. This is one of the many reasons I will never, ever use another lab. I just want to say thanks, I can’t tell you how much I appreciate it.

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Honesty Environmental Services, Inc.

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Rain Bowen Environmental, LLC

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Etech Environmental & Safety Solutions, Inc

J3 has always come through for me. Tight turnaround times, challenging projects, unusual scopes…Lee and his team will find an innovative solution. From technical capabilities to administrative assistance, J3 leads the way in excellent service. Thank you for making me feel like the most important customer…I am sure everyone feels that way.

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President
Envirotas, Inc.

If you are looking for a professional Industrial Hygiene Laboratory in the Houston or surrounding areas, I highly recommend J3 Resources. Lee Poye and his staff are extremely knowledgeable about the industry, the quality of the report is excellent, and they have great customer service. They are my lab of choice on all of my projects.

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Farmer Environmental Group, LLC

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Asbestos Consultant
QC Laboratories, Inc.

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Ron G. Holt

Chief Executive Officer
EFI Global, Inc.

Dodson Environmental has had the privilege of interacting with J3 Resources since our company was formed. We have appreciated the level of their expertise including state of the art technical knowledge provided by the administration and staff of J3 Resources. We consider that they offer both “state of the art” instrumentation and technical expertise as well as a willingness to provide guidance in solving challenges associated with complex as well as straight forward projects.

Ronald F. Dodson, Ph.D., F.C.C.P., F.A.H.A.

President
Dodson Environmental Consulting, Inc.

Over the past several years I have sent hundreds of samples from building surveys to J3 Resources, Inc. Their response has always met the demands of my clients for fast turnaround and my own expectations for detailed information on all sample layers. Furthermore, J3 has satisfied my rigorous requirements for analysis of bulk, air, and microvac samples collected for research and special assignments.

ANDREW F. OBERTA, MPH, CIH

The Environmental Consultancy
Austin, TX ”